Introduction: Quick-setting calcium aluminosilicate cement with improved washout resistance is a potential substitute for calcium silicate cements in endodontics. This study examined the effect of an experimental calcium aluminosilicate cement (Quick-Set; Primus Consulting, Bradenton, FL) on the viability of odontoblast-like cells. Methods: The biocompatibility of Quick-Set and white ProRoot MTA (WMTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) cements and their eluents was evaluated using a murine dental papilla– derived odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23); 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to examine the effects of the 2 hydraulic cements on mitochondrial metabolic activity. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to identify the effects of the 2 cements on cell death–induced plasma membrane permeability to fluorescent dyes and DNA stains. Results: After the first week of immersion in culture medium, Quick-Set and WMTA were more cytotoxic than the Teflonnegative control (P < .05), and the cells exhibited more apoptosis/necrosis than Teflon (P < .05). After the second week of immersion, the 2 cements were as biocompatible as Teflon (P > .05), with cells exhibiting minimal apoptosis/necrosis. Eluents from the set cements at 1:1 dilution were significantly more cytotoxic that eluents at 1:10 or 1:100 dilution (P < .05). Conclusions: Quick-Set and WMTA exhibited similar cytotoxicity profiles. They possess negligible in vitro toxicologic risks after time-dependent elution of toxic components. (J Endod 2012;-:1–7)